Maritime policy and environment

The ongoing growth of trade will drive the development of global logistics with new services through supply chain management and ICT applications (e.g. B2B markets, real-time controlling). These developments will cause new company and market structures. At the same time, the interest of society and politics in the sustainability of maritime shipping is growing. Fraunhofer offers the competence to develop realistic economic and environmental analyses of the future in the industry through connections to the German supply industry and shipowners. The expertise in transport and climate policy enables the integration of environmental policy both internationally (IMO) and within Europe. Fraunhofer's competencies in the field of maritime policy and environment are:

Analysis and consulting on innovation and climate policy in the maritime industry

Market analysis and market development

Development of visions and modelling of technological developments and scenarios for the maritime industry

Maritime policy

© Fraunhofer ISI

Politics and regulation are key drivers of development in the shipping industry. The IMO has created new requirements for seagoing vessels through the Ballast Water Management Convention, which has initiated the development of new systems and certification processes. The regulation of air emissions, especially NOx and SOx, through control zones (NECAs and SECAs) and the global regulation of sulphur content for fuels require changes in propulsion and fuel. In the EU, strict NOx regulations are creating new challenges for inland navigation. Greenhouse gas emissions are also being considered for regulation, requiring further changes in vessels, engines and fuels. Industrial and technology policies for the maritime sector influence the shipbuilding market. The analysis and modelling of policy impacts requires knowledge of policy developments as well as skills in scenario methods and model analysis.

Project examples and publications

Avoidance of disadvantageous impacts in the design of a regional market based instrument for CO2 emissions reduction in shipping: Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. (Fraunhofer ISI)

Course set for a cap? A case study among ship operators on a maritime ETS: Koesler, S., Achtnicht M. and Köhler J. (2015), Transport Policy 37, 20-30. (Fraunhofer ISI)

Sailing into a dilemma: An economic and legal analysis of an EU trading scheme for maritime emissions: Hermeling C, Klement, J.H., Koesler, S., Köhler, J., Klement D. (2015), Transportation Research Part A, 78, 34–53. (Fraunhofer ISI)

Technological developments and scenarios

© Fraunhofer ISI

Environmental policy requirements for NOx and SOx mean that inland waterway and seagoing vessels cannot continue to use both heavy fuel oil and conventional diesel engines. Ships will have to be equipped with either exhaust treatment or new fuels and propulsion systems. The possible introduction of a strict greenhouse gas policy will push other technologies - 'Power-to-X', hydrogen and wind. All these technologies are being developed. This is a wide range of possibilities, with different costs, infrastructures and challenges for ship operation. The effects are not certain. This gives the maritime industry many opportunities to develop new products, but at the same time the industry faces major uncertainties through these major changes and the amount many alternatives. Scenarios of the development paths of the technologies and their images are therefore important for the industry. Such analyses must use innovation analyses and simulations to show the contexts of the different market segments as well as the development possibilities of the technologies. Fraunhofer offers technology analyses and scenario modeling through models such as the MATISSE-SHIP model.

Project examples and publications

Study on the analysis of market potentials and market barriers for wind propulsion technologies for ships: for DG Klima, Fraunhofer ISI with CE Delft (Fraunhofer ISI)

SCIPPER: Shipping Contributions to Inland Pollution Push for the Enforcement of Regulations EU Horizon 2020 Research program (Fraunhofer CML)

Scenarios for the Decarbonisation of Shipping: for MAN Energy Systems (Fraunhofer ISI)

Transitions pathways to very low emissions shipping: the Matisse-Ship model. Köhler J. (2019) in The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, International Conference on Wind Propulsion pp. 83-90, RINA, London. (Fraunhofer ISI)

Fighting the windbreak: Köhler J., Nelissen D., Traut, M. (2017), The Naval Architect, May, 26-32. (Fraunhofer ISI)

Market analysis and market development

© Fraunhofer ISI

Shipping is a service for logistics and passenger transport. It consists of different markets with very different needs. While the cruise industry was booming globally, ferry and ro-pax transport are dependent on local conditions. Tankers are depending on the global oil markets and further freight traffic is depending on the economic situation. Nevertheless, there is a high demand for new technologies in the shipping industry. Even though there are capacity overhangs in shipbuilding due to new shipyards in Asia, new environmental regulations require technical developments to be implemented through new products. Market analyses must therefore take account of the different applications and the impact of developments in trade flows but also in MECAs, SECAs and IMO greenhouse gas regulations. Fraunhofer also undertakes projects on the status of ship and port operations.

Project examples and publications

GLOBIS - Rethinking globalisation in the light of sustainable development for DG Environment, EU 7th Framework Programme (Fraunhofer ISI)

Investigation of the economic importance of German sea and inland ports based on their employment effects (Fraunhofer CML)